Prompt: Discuss the relationship between spirituality, gender, and sexuality in the context of medieval Persian literature.
Deadline: Tuesday, June 7, 11:59 pm.
Length: 1500 words
Sources: all primary and secondary sources assigned after week 5, as well as five key sources assigned between weeks 1 and 5.
These are the sources I must include in developing my argument:
Klein, Yaron. “Music, Rapture and Pragmatics: Ghazālī on Samāʿ and Wajd.” In No Tapping around Philology: A Festschrift in Honor of Wheeler McIntosh Thackston Jr.’S 70th Birthday, edited by Alireza Korangy and Daniel J. Sheffield. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014: 215-42.
Rowson, Everett K. “The Effeminates of Early Medina.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 111, no. 4, 1991, pp. 671–93. JSTOR, Accessed 30 May 2022.
Myrne, Pernilla. Female Sexuality in the Early Medieval Islamic World : Gender and Sex in Arabic Literature / Pernilla Myrne. I.B. Tauris, 2020.
Herdt, Gilbert H. “Coming of Age and Coming Out Ceremonies Across Cultures,” Same Sex, Different Cultures : Exploring Gay and Lesbian Lives, Boulder, CO: Westview, 1997, pp. 40–54,
Voll, John O. and Kazuo Ohtsuka. “Sufism.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. 30-May-2022.
Leoni, Stefano A. E. . “Samāʿ.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. 30-May-2022.
ʻAṭṭār, Farīd al-Dīn, et al. The Conference of the Birds / Farid Ud-Din Attar ; Translated with an Introduction by Afkham Darbandi and Dick Davis. Penguin Books, 1984.
Bruijn, J. T. P. de. Persian Sufi Poetry: An Introduction to the Mystical Use of Classical Persian Poems. Taylor and Francis, 2014,
Ingenito, Domenico. “Saʿdī and the senses,” In Sensory History of the Islamic World: A Primary Source Reader, edited by Christian Lange, Brill, forthcoming [2023]
Leyli o Majnun (Encyclopedia):
Foundation, Encyclopaedia Iranica. “LEYLI O MAJNUN.” RSS,
Leyli and Majnun (Story):
Ganjavī Niẓāmī, and Dick Davis. Layli and Majnun. Penguin Books, 2021.
Haft Awrang:
Simpson, Marianna S. “Sultan Ibrahim Haft Awrang .” 1556.
The “Beloved”:
Foundation, Encyclopaedia Iranica. “BELOVED.” RSS,
Homosexuality in Persian literature:
“Homosexuality in Persian Literature.” Encyclopedia Iranica. Volume 12, December 15, 2004,
pp. 445-448, pp.449-454.
Beholding Beauty:
Ingenito, Domenico. Beholding Beauty. BRILL, 2020.


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