1) What ecosystem functions do lichens play? Name and describe two.

2) How has the fire regime changed in California in recent years? Describe in terms of at least two fire traits (e.g. severity).

3) What is gamma diversity? And how is it different from plot-level species richness?

4) What does it mean for a lichen to reproduce 1) vegetatively or 2) not vegetatively? And why did the authors hypothesize that vegetatively-reproducing lichens would be more common in the years after fire?

5) Explain why epiphytic microlichens are particularly vulnerable if the chaparral converts into a grassland


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