1) What is the likelihood that offspring A gets a gene from her maternal grandmother? Write your answer as a decimal. If the decimal is longer than 4 places, please round to 4 places ( example 0.####).

2) If my uncle has no children, how many children between his three nieces would be equivalent to if he had fathered 4 of his own children?

3) In a study involving Parrot fishes (family Labidae), three feeding behaviors — picking, scraping and ripping– were observed across the Parrot fish taxonomic unit. Researchers used biogeography and found that in environments with high coral diversity, there were all three behavioral types coexisting, but when the coral diversity decreased to just a few different types of coral,  the behavior became specific to the coral type, indicating there was little direction competition between feeding behavior types and that behavior was mostly determined by environmental pressures. Phylogenic analysis also indicated that the morphologies associated with the behavior were not clumped (more closely related), but dispersed across all genera within the Parrotfish clade.

Which of the following experimental methods were likely used to conduct this study based on what was stated above? (select all that apply)

a. Observational Analysis

b. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation

c. Pattern Recognition

d. Experimental Manipulation

e. Phylogenetic Analysis

4) Which of the following play a role in a conditional response in behavior? (Select all that apply)

a. the biotic environment

b. the perceptive ability of the focal animal

c. the abiotic environment

d. the genetics of the focal animal

e. the learning and memory capacity of the focal animal

5) Choose Ultimate Hypothesis/ Ultimate Question/ Proximate Question/ Ultimate Prediction/ Proximate Hypothesis/ Proximate Prediction for a-f

a) The toad responds to temperature sensitivity based on the hypothalamus, and moves underground once internal body temperature reaches a specific upper temperature limit.

b) How does this organism attract mates?

c) Why do desert toads disappear during peak daylight hours when food (insects) is abundant?

d) The toad moves underground during the daytime in order to regulate body temperature and maintain the function of its proteome.

e) If I sever the gland from its neuron, the organism that has this gland will not produce pheromones

f) If I prevent this organism from releasing pheromone A at time t, the organism will have fewer offspring as a result.


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