1. What does St. Augustine find objectionable about the Classical view of the States? How does his own view differ from the Classical view? In what particular ways is his departure from Classical political theory bound up with his rejection of other aspects of the Classical world view, especially concerning the source and nature of moral knowledge?2. If St. Augustine may be taken to break radically with the Classical notion of the state, St. Thomas Aquinas may be looked upon as attempting to integrate parts of that tradition within a Christian worldview. Discuss. What are the elements of continuity between the political theories of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas? In what ways do their political theories differ.3. According to St. Thomas Aquinas, the positive or man-made laws of a properly ordered society should be based on natural law. Explain the nature of natural law and exactly how it is related to positive law. Exactly why is positive law necessary? What are important political implications of the doctrine of natural law as St. Thomas Aquinas employs it?4. According to Lord Acton, St. Thomas Aquinas was “the first Whig.” Discuss reasons for viewing St. Thomas Aquinas as a constitutional theorist. Early in his career, notably Secular Authority, Martin Luther would ordinarily not be considered a proponent of constitutionalism. But as events unfolded, his position changed. Discuss reasons for questioning whether Luther was a constitutional theories in Secular Authority and reasons why he could be said to have earned this designation later.5. Discuss the main elements of scholastic political philosophy as illustrated by the thoughts of St. Thomas Aquinas. To what extent and in what respects does Martin Luther depart from St. Thomas Aquinas’ position?6. Although the political theories of Martin Luther and St. Augustine are similar in many respects, they differ over questions of religious persecution (taking Secular Authority to represent Luther’s view). In what ways do their positions differ? How do they defend their respective views? Discuss and assess underlying assumptions of their two views.7. Discuss the relationship between allegorical interpretations of the Scriptures and the power of the Church in temporal political affairs, including specific allegories and how they were employed. How did the movement away from allegorical interpretations tell against papal power in both the Church and in temporal affairs. How did it appeal to Roman Law notions of the corporation embedded in canon law also serve to undermine the power of the Pope?


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