1) What are the primary differences between herbivorous and omnivorous or carnivorous guts?

a. Omnivore and carnivore guts have lost a large portion of the intestine called the cecum, that digests cellulose.b. Herbivore guts are shorter.

c. Herbivore guts have lost a large portion of the intestine called the cecum, that digests cellulose.

2) Stotting in Gazelles is subject to changes in effectiveness as a predation deterrent and therefore often shows oscillations in the frequency the that behavior in a population.

Select one: True/ False

3) When should we expect to see a predation behavior evolve? Assume the answer choice does not change any other factor in the system except for the stated change. (choose all the correct answer)

a. When the behavior maximizes net energy profit

b. When the behavior maximizes energy expenditure.

c. When the behavior increases nutrient or caloric availability.

d. When the behavior reduces search time.

e. When the behavior reduces risk.

4) Crytochrome dense cells are used primarily for navigation and serve no other function in animals that possess them.

Select one: True/ False

5) For which of the following is there evidence that migrating animals use it for navigation across migratory routes? (choose all the correct answer)

a. social cues (follow the leader)

b. chemical cues (pheromones etc…)

c. thermal cues (climate, water and air)

d. magnetic cues (cryptochrome and iron-d


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