Study Questions and Exercises

1) Define in your own words the following terms:

a) Cohort

b) Cohort effect

c) Population-based cohort

d) Exposure-based cohort

e) Comparison groups in cohort studies

f) Prospective cohort study

g) Retrospective cohort study

h) Ambispective cohort study

2) What are secular trends and cohort effects? Explain the relationship between these two terms.

3) Explain what is meant by the term relative risk and explain how it is used in cohort studies.

5) A cohort study was conducted to study the association between coffee drinking and anxiety in a population-based sample of adults. Among 10,000 coffee drinkers, 500 developed anxiety. Among the 20,000 non–coffee drinkers, 200 cases of anxiety were observed. What is the relative risk of anxiety associated with coffee use?

6) How is a case-control study different from a retrospective cohort study? List the key criteria that, in general, would influence you to select one approach over the other.



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